Due to the lack of Nether/End worlds in the Flatlands, new methods had to be forged to gather otherwise unobtainable items and blocks. The following is the result of such an endeavor...
A Guide to the Unknown
Originally gathered from the remains of a fiery beast that dwells within the Underworld known as a Blaze, this rod is often crushed into a powdery form for further use.
Ground from the remains of a Blaze, Blaze Powder has long been used in potions and is now even used to fuel brewing. I wonder... what other magical properties might this powder hold?
Once extracted from a Ghast after death, artificial methods have since been developed for gathering this crucial brewing ingredient.
Due to a more recent blight, all natural sugar cane has been wiped off the map. As an attempt to save the species, scientists developed a new method of splicing Sugar Cane DNA with regular seed DNA.
Upon discovering a new parallel dimension to the Overworld/Underworld, a team of scientists set out to gather samples. During their journey it was discovered that the End, as they called it, was filled with many dangerous creatures with the ability to teleport at will, and a beast only dreamt of in myths... a dragon. Declaring the dimension unsafe, the scientists set out to recreate the unnatural stone from this world.
Another sample gathered from this alternate dimension known as the End. These plants grow in a sporadic manner. Upon further testing, it was found that their fruit could be cooked and made into a sturdy building material.
After carbon emissions led to a global evaporation of all major oceans, dirt once suspended in the water began to mix with the sand and was deposited across the land. Over time, these deposits grew with the utilization of this newly exposed land by Steve(s)/Alex(s) until sand pure sand could no longer be found. In an effort to recover this valuable resource, a method was developed for extracting the sand from common soil via the magical properties of blaze powder.
As with sand, clay had become all but impossible to find. In an effort to regain access to this valuable resource, scientists developed a method to create artificial clay from the remains of a Creeper and sand.Pumpkin
Just like sand and clay, the pumpkin plant all but disappeared from the world. After much research and testing, scientists genetically modified regular crops to produce a variety of pumpkin seeds when gathered with a special shearing tool.
Scientists further modified Cactus DNA to mimic the long extinct Melon plant so that its flesh could be harvested and eaten in desert-like environments simply by shearing off all of the prickly thorns. A slow and painstaking process, but it could be the difference between life and death in such a harsh environment.
After further experimentation, scientists discovered that ground up bones of the skeleton mob also have magical properties. After applying said dust to sand, it seems that the long since extinct Cactus DNA within has been reawakened, resulting in the formation of a new Cactus plant, though it did take a few tries to get a successful specimen.
Ancient tomes found deep below the Earth have revealed a new type of magic: rituals. By placing certain blocks in a specific pattern, scientists found that all sorts of things were possible, such as the ability to drag a piece of the Nether itself into this world, allowing the safe harvesting of that world's resources. Sadly, before more research could be done, the scientists happened upon a specific ritual that led to their own destruction after touching the center block of the structure. All that is left of their research are the pictures below.